Call for teaching cases 2020
Social enterprises are highly embedded in their context; hence, social entrepreneurial activities and practices vary greatly across contexts (Rivera-Santos, Holt, Littlewood, & Kolk, 2015). These differences stem from contrasting forces—political, social, society, institutional, historical, spatial, and temporal dimensions—that exist in the external environment. For example, the activities and business models change following the country of origin (Bacq & Janssen, 2011; Dees & Battle-Anderson, 2006; Defourny, 2014; Defourny & Nyssens, 2008; Defourny & Nyssens, 2010; Karanda & Toledano, 2012; Kerlin, 2006; 2010); the religion (Ramadani et al., 2017; Yan, 2012); and the political, legal and economic environment (Margiono, Zolin, & Chang, 2017; Partzsch & Ziegler, 2011; Peattie & Morley, 2008; Ridley-Duff, 2016). This explains why the definitions of social entrepreneurship tend to vary between regions in terms of understanding, use, context, and policy (Kerlin, 2006; Nicholls, 2006; Poon, 2011). As such, social entrepreneurial activities are not unitary actors as they depend on the space-time context and vary across geography and communities (Dufays, 2017; Ebrahim, Battilana, & Mair. 2014; Kerlin, 2010; Seelos, Mair, Battilana, & Dacin, 2011). However, little is known about how the social economy, social enterprises and social entrepreneurial activities work in emerging, developing-market or fragile-state contexts, including Africa—where potentially they have the highest impact because of the depth of market failure (Karanda & Toledano, 2012; Urban, 2015).